Diagnosis

Diagnosis of PCD

Diagnosis of PCD presents a number of challenges and can often be a complex process. It is not uncommon for the diagnosis to be significantly delayed, with the diagnosis not even considered for many years, after many visits to multiple specialists. Even when PCD is part of the diagnostic workup, inconclusive results may present additional challenges and frustrations. Perhaps the biggest challenge is that there is no single diagnostic testing option that is 100% effective. There are currently only two approved methods for diagnosing PCD:

  1. Biopsy of ciliated tissue (usually from the nose or trachea) with analysis of ciliary ultrastructure
  2. Genetic test showing two mutations known to cause PCD—one from each parent

Additional Tests

There are three additional tests that can be used as screening tools to determine whether PCD is a likely diagnosis. None of these tests are approved for diagnosis (in the United States at least) and they all must be confirmed by one of the above tests before a diagnosis can be made. These ‘adjunct’ PCD tests are primarily used in research settings:

  • Nasal nitric oxide (note: not ‘nitrous’) measurement
  • High-speed videomicroscopy to assess ciliary beat pattern
  • Immunofluorescent assay using tagged antibodies

Most importantly, there is a strong clinical phenotype—or physical presentation—associated with PCD and diagnostic testing undertaken in the absence of this presentation is not recommended, as it has led to an unacceptably high rate of false positive diagnoses in PCD (people being told they have the disorder when they do not).

Symptoms

With rare exceptions, people with PCD exhibit the following symptoms:

In the first months of life (an important phenotypic feature is that the symptoms of PCD almost always present at birth or shortly after–this can help distinguish PCD from non-PCD):

  • Respiratory problems in the newborn period despite full term birth
  • Daily, year-round, wet cough starting in the first year of life (usually first months of life) that does not go away with change of seasons. It may improve with antibiotic treatment, but never fully resolves
  • Daily, year-round nasal congestion starting in the first year of year of life (usually first months of life) that does not go away with change of seasons
  • Any laterality/situs (organ placement) anomaly and/or organ development issue, plus the above

In older children and adults, all of the above remain constant, plus:

  • Development of chronic otitis media with effusion and/or recurrent ear infections
  • Development of chronic pansinusitis (all sinuses involved)
  • Bronchiectasis on chest CT scan or x-ray
  • Fertility issues

Expert Centers for PCD Diagnosis

Because PCD diagnosis relies on a high level of experience with the disorder and with diagnostic technologies, the PCD Foundation recommends that diagnosis be done–when at all possible–at a PCD Clinical and Research Network site. Learn more about our PCDF Clinical Centers Network.

Genetic Testing Resources

There are a number of options for genetic testing for PCD, including genetic laboratory services at individual academic sites and commercial genetic testing vendors. Individual physician preference and insurance requirements often dictate which genetic testing provider is used. The list below represents commercial vendors* (vs. in-house academic labs) that offer PCD genetic testing panels.

PLEASE NOTE: This information is provided as an informational resource only and should not be viewed as an endorsement for any particular test or vendor.

*Vendors—if you would like to be included on this list, please forward information to the PCD Foundation at info@pcdfoundation.org.

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